Archive | October, 2018

Ways of Health: Illnesses In Primitive Societies (Excerpt)

30 Oct

Primitive societies regard illness as a misfortune involving the entire person, directly affecting his relationship with the spirit world and with other members of his group.  Although they recognize different kinds of illness, their classifications often bear no relation to those of Western medicine.  In particular, they may not distinguish sharply between mental and bodily illness, or between that due to natural and that due to supernatural causes.

Illnesses tend to be viewed as symbolic expressions of internal conflicts of of disturbed relationships to others or both.   Thus they may be attributed to soul loss, possession by and evil spirit, the magical insertion of a harmful body by a sorcerer, or the machinations of offended or malicious ancestral ghosts.  It is usually assumed that the patient laid himself open to these calamity through some witting or unwitting transgression against the supernatural world, or through incurring the enmity of a sorcerer or someone who has employed a sorcerer to wreak revenge.  The transgression need not have been committed by the patient himself.  He may fall ill through the sin of a kinsman.

Although many societies recognize that certain illnesses have natural causes, this does not exclude the simultaneous role of supernatural ones.  A broken leg may be recognized as caused by a fall from a tree, but the cause of the fall may have been an evil thought or a witch’s curse.

Because of the high mortality rates among primitive peoples many diseases represent a great threat to the patient, and the longer the illness lasts, the greater the threat becomes. In societies subsisting on a marginal level, illness is a threat to the group as well as to the invalid.  It prevents the invalid from making his full contribution to the group’s support and diverts the energies of those who must care for him from group purposes.  Therefore, it seems likely that every illness has overtones of anxiety, despair and similar emotions, mounting as cure is delayed.  That is, persons for whom healing rituals are performed probably are experiencing emotions that aggravate their distress and disability, whatever the underlying pathological condition.  The invalid is in conflict within himself and out of harmony with his group.  The group is faced with the choice of abandoning him to his fate by completing the process of extrusion, or of making strenuous efforts to heal him, thereby restoring him to useful membership in his community.

These considerations may be exemplified by a personal disaster than can befall members of certain groups and that may have a counterpart in civilized societies.  This is the so-called taboo death, which apparently results from noxious emotional states related to certain individual and group assumptive systems about supernatural forces and which also involve the victim’s relationships with his group.

Ed., Sobel, D.S., Ways of Health-Holistic Approaches to Ancient and Contemporary Medicine (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich., New York and London ©1979) Unorthodox Medicine- Nonmedical Healing: Religious and Secular (Part 3) by Jerome D. Frank pp. 235-236.

Old Testament Proverbs

29 Oct

Old Testament Proverbs

The Book of Proverbs

Chapter 8

  1. Does not Wisdom call out,

And Discernment raise her voice?

  1. On the high ground beside the road,

And wherever paths cross, she takes up her stance.

  1. Beside gates at the entrance to a town,

At its approaches her voice rings out:

  1. ‘It is to you, O men, that I call,

And my words are for human kind


  1. I-II Wisdom as Instructress


[1-3] Wisdom does not recoil from the rough and tumble of the market-place with its busyness and noise.  She does not reserve her discourse for a learned audience or esoteric circle, claiming immunity from the cut and thrust of a less exalted and refined level of debate and disdaining to mix with the crowds.  When she raises her voice it is not to deliver an academic lecture in a classroom, or a sermon in a temple to a crowd of worshippers (cf. Jer. 7), or to enlighten an élite, but to summon men from their occupations and distractions to take part in an open-air meeting (cf. Gemser).  She had no assurance of an audience, no prior publicity, and there are no established conventions in connection with this mode of address which guarantee that she will be treated with deference and have easy passage.


She operates where the competition is fiercest, not so much the competition of other oraters as men’s preoccupation with those things which they take more seriously than listening to speeches – earning their living, making bargains, getting wealth, transacting local politics, settling disputes and other less deliberate gregarious enjoyments.  It is against all this that Wisdom has to compete, raising her voice and summoning an audience until she wins one by the sustained force of her eloquence.  She picks a place where the human traffic is heaviest, whether on a natural pulpit at the side of the road or at a cross-roads or besides the gates which give access to the city, where there is a continual movement to and fro and where the forum on which all manner of public transactions focus is located (vv. 2-2)


[4f.] It is the young men, the wisdom teacher’s constituency, to whom she particularly addresses her words, and she urges them to acquire intellectual discrimination.


McKane, William; The Old Testament Library. Proverbs: A New Approach . (The Westminster Press. Philadelphia. ©SCM Press Ltd 1970) pp. 222, 344-345.

Image 29 Oct

Icon of the Descent of the Holy Spirit

29 Oct

“Jesus said to his disciples:
‘If you love me, you will keep my commandments.
And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate to be with you always, the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept, because it neither sees nor knows Him.’’
John 14:15-16

The Rending of the Veil of the Temple

27 Oct

The Rending of The Veil of The Temple


The History of the Metal Detector

20 Oct

The History of the Metal Detector

By Daniel Bernzweig

The metal detector you’re using today has a surprisingly long history. In fact, the history of the metal detector is quite interesting and even involves a former president!

The First Metal Detector Appears

Back in the mid 1800s, after the invention of electricity, many scientists, scholars, and gold miners began experimenting with the idea of developing a machine that could locate metal buried underground. A device like this would be incredibly useful to the many prospectors still looking for gold after the “Gold Rush” and, as a result, could make the first person to perfect a metal detector very, very rich.

The first metal detector mentioned in history, however, actually has nothing to do with finding gold. Instead, it was used in an attempt to save President James Garfield after he was shot in Washington, D.C. on July 2, 1881, at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station by Charles J. Guiteau. The President had been shot in the back, but, luckily, the wound did not kill him. Unfortunately though, doctors couldn’t locate the bullet and Garfield continued to suffer.

One of his visitors during that time, Alexander Graham Bell, built a metal detector specifically to try to help find this bullet, but, sadly, his attempts were unsuccessful. It turns out the metal springs in the bed President Garfield was lying on confused the machine and rendered it essentially useless. President Garfield finally died of infection from his wound September 19, 1881.

Improving the Original Metal Detector Design

Although the first metal detector didn’t help save the 20th President of the United States, the machine Alexander Graham Bell made was a viable metal detector and it went on to be the prototype for which all other metal detectors from that time forward have been based. Initially, these machines were really big, complicated, and ran on vacuum tubes. But, they were useful and continued to rise in popularity as a result. Most importantly these early metal detectors were used to find and clear landmines, and unexploded bombs across Europe after WWI and WWII.

At about the same time Gerhard Fisher, the founder of Fisher Metal Detectors, made an important discovery in his work on navigational systems. The radio beams he was using were being distorted every time there was an ore bearing rock in the area. As he was trying to work out the kinks in his system, he reasoned that this type of technology on a smaller scale might be useful as a metal detector. In 1925 Fisher was granted the patent on the first portable metal detector and he sold his first Fisher machine to the public in 1931.

The 1950s to Present Day Metal Detectors

Even though Fisher was granted the first patent on a metal detector, he’s just one of many who refined and perfected the technology currently being used in your metal detector. Another major player in the development of today’s metal detectors is Charles Garrett, the founder of Garrett Metal Detectors. An electrical engineer by trade, Garrett started metal detecting as a hobby in the early 1960s. After trying a variety of the machines on the market he couldn’t find one that was able to do all he wanted. So he began work on his own metal detector. After much research he was able to create a machine that eliminated oscillator drift, as well as several unique search coils he patented all of which essentially revolutionized metal detector design up to that point.

Other factors that have greatly influenced the development of metal detectors as we know them today include transistors – invented in 1947 by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley – as well as discriminators, new search coil designs, and wireless technology. All of these things and more have allowed the metal detector to become the lightweight, portable, easy to use, deep seeking machines we know today.

With the number of players involved both professional and amatuer, as well as the rapid pace of technological advancement as a whole, the future of metal detectors is anyone’s guess. What can be almost guaranteed though is that metal detectors will continue to evolve and change in order to find even more treasure. Treasure hunters just don’t quit and, as you can see by the history of the metal detector up to this point, it’s these passionate, inventive people who’ve made metal detectors the machines they are today; and who’ll continue to influence the future of metal detecting.

© 2014 Detector Electronics Corp.

The latest addition to the exhibit is this flight suit from Pete Hanrahan of Wichita Falls.

20 Oct

The latest addition to the exhibit is this flight suit from Pete Hanrahan of Wichita Falls, who retired from the Air Force as a Lt Col. This suit saw missions in the Korean and Vietnam wars. Hanrahan then became a T-38 instructor at SAFB. The patch on the left shoulder represents a time before ENJJPT when our only European ally training here was Germany.