Archive | January, 2018
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Sangre de Cristo Mountain Range

31 Jan

The Police – Synchronicity II (Synchronicity Concert)

31 Jan

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WWI Doughboy and 89th Infantry Division Memorial, Pueblo, CO

31 Jan

Image 31 Jan

Daniel Lanois – Still Water

31 Jan

The Future of Time Man’s Temporal Environment: Chemical Modifiers of Time

31 Jan

The subjective experience of time as a component of inner perception is especially intriguing when contrasted with the panorama of outer experience. In the context of an objective time continuum, time can be seen as a linear perceptual learning set (Yaker and Franzblau, 1968), and “the child moves from a spatially oriented to a temporally perceived world” (Piaget, 1963). The plasticity or ‘elasticity” of inner time, and the effects of manipulation thereof have been demonstrated in Aaronson’s (1968) work with hypnotized subjects and by other research as well, and the inner aspect of time perception has recently been underlined as a very considerable reality in man’s personal experience. It is a major feature of drug experience, an experiential reality in mental illness (Mann et al., 1968), and a reality experienced by all people all or most of the time. In short, it is now increasingly clear that human awareness, activity, and experience occupy two different time universes both simultaneously and separately although little note was taken of this-as a reality to be taken seriously- during the industrial revolution, when attention was focused on the outer or objective world. Indeed, Du Preez (1964) observed that “subjective alterations in the rate of flow of time are not necessarily expressed in judgments.” or that, in other words, cognitive controls for dealing with the outside world can correct judgement based on widely variable inner perceptions. It is thus obvious that the inner world can be practically ignored or said not to exist at certain times.

 

Human functioning, or manipulation of the phenomenal universe, does indeed take place along a nearly inflexible outer time continuum in the material universe, in which temporal distortions exist only as an academic and metaphysical syllogism for physicists to particularize as a mass approaches velocities not usually contingent to mass in the ordinary macrocosm. For example, within the environment of a particle mobilized or nearly at the speed of light (V1), time slows or stops, so that the smallest increment of sidereal time becomes an epoch or a perpetuity, and with acceleration to V2 (some velocity exceeding the speed of light), a reversion occurs so that time begins to run backwards for the particle. Speculation as to how these highly theoretical equations might relate to inner time perception in man is inescapable, since “the infinitesimal epoch” is a commonly reported subjective time experience. Existence and functioning are manifest, therefore, in coexistent time worlds, where existence takes place in a very fluid time universe and functioning manifests along a relatively rigid linearity.

Under the influence of emotions or drugs, among other things, minutes may be so crammed full of experience that they seem like hours, or so affected in other ways that they seem mere iotas of time. Relative to emotion, for example Freedman (1963) comments that “endogenous brain amines are responsive not only to LSD-25 and psychoactive congeners, but also to some factor or factors of intense stress,” and regarding drugs Louria’s book Nightmare Drugs (1966) and many others, illustrate the inner time experience vividly. Contrasting the psychedelic with the psychotic experience, Mann, Siegler, and Osmond (1968) note that, in the former, there may be seeming liberation from time, while in the latter internal time may change in terms of rate.

In conclusion, the whole range of human cognizance takes place in an inner time environment with extreme qualities of fluidity, dilating and ballooning out at time A to take in many events in a unit of clock time and constricting at time B so that an interval seems to have “raced by.” Mobility in either direction within this environment is an added feature of the inner experience-possible, as previously suggested, in the outer environment-possible, as previously suggested, in the outer environment only as a particle accelerates from V1 to V2, where V1 is the speed of light.

 

 

 

The Future of Time Man’s Temporal Environment

Edited By Henry Yaker, Humphry Osmond AND Frances Cheek(Anchor Books Doubleday & Company, Inc. Garden City, New York, 1972) pp. 352-354

 

Ways of Using Time and Typology

31 Jan

Mann, Siegler and Osmond (1968 and this volume) explored the relationship between temperamental differences as described by Jung and experience of time. Their four temporal orientations were:

(1) Feeling types-People for whom time is circular from past to present.

(2) Thinking Types-People who perceive time as flowing from past through the present to the future.

(3) Sensation types-People who do not see time as a continuous function. Their link with past and future is very weak.

(4) Intuitive types-People who go backward from visions of the future into the lesser reality of the present.

There are normal types. This way of relating type to use of time can be expanded to include much psychopathology and perhaps the effect of psychedelic drugs. The following possibilities are open:

(1) Past only is used.This is surely pathological and is characteristic of senile conditions where memories long past are more relevent than memory of breakfast consumed thirty minutes ago.

(2) Past is the present. This would represent one form of feeling type. The other form would be the case of the present being the past. As there is a relative absence of future, prophetic ability is weak and no longer controls behavior. Many psychedelic experiences seem to lack much prophetic ability and might account for otherwise inexplicable behavior.

(3) Past is the future. I doubt this use of time is compatible with life. Aaronson (1968) removed the present and produced catatonia. The subject described his state as unbeing, like death. Perhaps some of our catatonics live in the past and future. I have seen a few subjects given too much LSD who were catatonic but this does not prove LSD removed the present.

(4) Present is the past. This would be a variant of the feeling type and the mirror image of past is the present.

(5) Present is primary. This is the main mode of the sensation type.

(6) Present is the future. Here there is no past! This may be a variant of the intuitive or its mirror image.

(7) Future is the past. This is a mirror image of past-is-the-future.

(8) Future is the present. The intuitive.

(9) Future primarily. This is another variant of the intuitive.

(10) Time flowing from the past. Time flows from present to future. This is the thinking type.

Unfortunately no research has been published which measured the effect of psychedelics in one’s use of time or in measuring the effect upon various types. The following experiments would be very valuable: (a) To describe the type of experience induced in reasonably pure types by different psychedelics. This is, of course, enormously complicated and adds one more variable to a large number which infleunce the psychedelic experience (Hoffer and osmond, 1967). (b) Repeating Aaronsoson’s work on subjects under the influence of psychedelic drugs.

 

The Future of Time Man’s Temporal Environment

Edited By Henry Yaker, Humphry Osmond AND Frances Cheek(Anchor Books Doubleday & Company, Inc. Garden City, New York, 1972) pp. 397-398