Michigan State Police said the strategic response has been quietly used many times

Michigan State Police said the strategic response has been quietly used many times

The search for a new chief at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo is over.

Jill Marshall, a former director of the New Mexico intermediate center for the disabled, will be the new chief executive at CMHIP, beginning March 26, state officials announced Tuesday.

Marshall will take over the hospital’s top office from Teresa Bernal, who has been the interim chief since Dec. 1.

SIGNIFICANT DIGITSThe number of significant digits in an answer to a calculation will depend on the number of significant digits in the given data, as discussed in the rules below. *Approximate* calculations (order-of-magnitude estimates) always result in answers with only one or two significant digits.

**When are Digits Significant?**

Non-zero digits are always significant. Thus, 22 has two significant digits, and 22.3 has three significant digits.

With zeroes, the situation is more complicated:

- Zeroes placed before other digits are not significant; 0.046 has two significant digits.
- Zeroes placed between other digits are always significant; 4009 kg has four significant digits.
- Zeroes placed after other digits but behind a decimal point are significant; 7.90 has three significant digits.
- Zeroes at the end of a number are significant only if they are behind a decimal point as in (c). Otherwise, it is impossible to tell if they are significant. For example, in the number 8200, it is not clear if the zeroes are significant or not. The number of significant digits in 8200 is at least two, but could be three or four. To avoid uncertainty, use scientific notation to place significant zeroes behind a decimal point:

8.200 ´ 10^{3} has four significant digits8.20 ´ 10^{3} has three significant digits

8.2 ´ 10^{3} has two significant digits

**Significant Digits in Multiplication, Division, Trig. functions, etc.**

In a calculation involving multiplication, division, trigonometric functions, etc., the number of significant digits in an answer should equal the least number of significant digits in any one of the numbers being multiplied, divided etc.

Thus in evaluating sin(kx), where k = 0.097 m^{-1} (two significant digits) and x = 4.73 m (three significant digits), the answer should have two significant digits.

Note that whole numbers have essentially an unlimited number of significant digits. As an example, if a hair dryer uses 1.2 kW of power, then 2 identical hairdryers use 2.4 kW:

1.2 kW {2 sig. dig.} ´ 2 {unlimited sig. dig.} = 2.4 kW {2 sig. dig.}

**Significant Digits in Addition and Subtraction**

When quantities are being added or subtracted, the number of *decimal places *(not significant digits) in the answer should be the same as the least number of decimal places in any of the numbers being added or subtracted.

Example:

5.67 J (two decimal places)

1.1 J (one decimal place)

__0.9378 J__ (four decimal place)

7.7 J (one decimal place)

**Keep One Extra Digit in Intermediate Answers**

When doing multi-step calculations, *keep at least one more significant digit in intermediate results* than needed in your final answer.

For instance, if a final answer requires two significant digits, then carry at least three significant digits in calculations. If you round-off all your intermediate answers to only two digits, you are discarding the information contained in the third digit, and as a result the *second* digit in your final answer might be incorrect. (This phenomenon is known as “round-off error.”)

**The Two Greatest Sins Regarding Significant Digits**

- Writing more digits in an answer (intermediate or final) than justified by the number of digits in the data.
- Rounding-off, say, to two digits in an intermediate answer, and then writing three digits in the final answer.

Try these Exercises:

- e
^{kt}= ?, where k = 0.0189 yr^{-1}, and t = 25 yr. - ab/c = ?, where a = 483 J, b = 73.67 J, and c = 15.67
- x + y + z = ?, where x = 48.1, y = 77, and z = 65.789
- m – n – p = ?, where m = 25.6, n = 21.1, and p = 2.43

https://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/tutorials/tutorials.html

https://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/tutorials/sig_fig/SIG_dig.htm

War finance, the fiscal and monetary methods that are used in meeting the costs of war, including taxation, compulsory loans, voluntary domestic loans, foreign loans, and the creation of money.

Government efforts to finance major wars have frequently led to major changes in the tax system. In the United States, for example, higher personal income tax rates, lower exemptions, and a deduction-at-source system of collection were introduced. Great Britain and many other belligerents in World War II resorted to general sales taxes.

Compulsory loans have been used as an alternative to taxation. Voluntary loans, in which money is raised by selling government bonds, are of two types those financed by the bankers and others from credit created by expansion of the monetary supply. The first type of loan is generally anti-inflationary because it eliminates excess purchasing power; the second type, under wartime conditions, is likely to be as inflationary as would be the printing of new paper money.

The most dangerous form of war finance is the printing of new paper money, resorted to when no more taxes can be collected and the government’s credit has broken down. Usually the printing is not done by the government directly but by the central bank, which then lends the printed money to the government through purchases of bonds

Major wars are usually financed to some extent by inflationary measures. Inflation distributes the burden of war costs in an arbitrary manner, penalizing persons with fixed incomes. After a certain point, inflation may even lower production by placing a premium on the hoarding of raw materials and durable goods, as well as the holding of real estate and …

Encyclopedia Brittanica

SAGUACHE — Undersheriff Dan Warwick tendered his resignation last Thursday, according to Saguache Sheriff Mike Norris.

Warwick had been with the Saguache Sheriff’s Office for the past – years. He served as a deputy there from 1995 to 2002 and as Undersheriff from 2002 to 2010.

Warwick said he resigned because he had heard from several citizens privately that following the election Sheriff Norris planned to either demote or dismiss him.

Norris had no comment concerning Warwick’s resignation.

Trevor Hawkins has been appointed to serve as interim undersheriff and Investigator Mark Werts has been assigned as patrol supervisor, Norris said. He indicated that the assignments could possibly change following the election.